Live & Learn International have been working with flood-affected and floating communities in Cambodia to develop appropriate and productive sanitation solutions that are effective and affordable. With an innovative and holistic approach, Live & Learn have adapted ‘productive sanitation’ technologies such as ecosan toilets and biodigesters to work in difficult conditions and produce fertilizer and biogas. Integrating sanitation with agricultural, energy, and livelihoods outcomes has made sanitation possible and attractive where it was unavailable previously.
Through a three-year $3.5 million partnership with Safe Water Network (SWN), The PepsiCo Foundation provides market-based approaches and technical support for safe and affordable water access to communities in Ghana, India, and Bangladesh. As part of the initiative, SWN and PepsiCo Foundation are exploring the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of Safe Water Kiosks which are community-led water purification operating systems. The “Safe Water Station” Initiative launched in 40 villages in India in 2010 is profiled here.
From 2006-2009, The PepsiCo Foundation committed $4.1 million to support Water.org’s MicroCredit Initiative in India. Through this program, PepsiCo Foundation seeks a market-based approach to the global water crisis by expanding the micro-loan market to individuals and families in India’s poorest urban slums.
Safe Water Network has been active in Ghana since 2009, when it established five water systems in peri-urban areas there. Based on research that found a steep decline in household penetration based on distance from a water station, SWN began installing “remote kiosks” — additional points of sale, staffed by a single operator and connected to a community’s main purification site by pipeline.
Since 2006, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has supported the Sustaining and Scaling School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Plus Community Impact program (SWASH+) in Kenya, contributing $9.5 million to CARE for the 5-year project. The initiative is an action-research and advocacy project focusing on increasing the scale, impact, and sustainability of WASH interventions in Kenya. It is being implemented by a consortium of the NGOs, including CARE, the Center for Global Safe Water at Emory University, the Great Lakes University of Kisumu, the Government of Kenya and previously Water.org.
With funding from grants by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and The Coca Cola Africa Foundation from 2011 to 2017, the Millennium Water Alliance (MWA), in conjunction with one of its implementing partners Catholic Relief Services and local partner Water Action, has been implementing integrated water resource management (IWRM) activities in rural northern Ethiopia. MWA has been piloting this approach since 2003, but was able to expand and intensify activities since 2012 with the support of its donors.
As the population grows and more pressure is placed on soil, an integrated, longer-term initiative is necessary to implement WASH programs sustainably. IWRM is a holistic approach that helps to ensure the integration of natural resource management with productive and domestic uses of water. The IWRM approach encompasses the broad scope of water demands, including time, geography, and multiple uses, such as small-scale irrigation, raising livestock, and fish farming. MWA is using similar approaches, tailored for the local environment, in its programs in Kenya and Latin America.
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has contributed $17.4 million to support the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing project (TSSM) in Tanzania, India and Indonesia. In Indonesia, the initiative is a collaboration between the Government of Indonesia, the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
In 2004, the Michael and Susan Dell Foundation awarded more than $1 million to finance WaterPartners International (Water.org) in its efforts to provide safe water and sanitation to the poor in developing countries. WaterPartners International launched a pilot WaterCredit Initiative which incorporated microfinance approach into water and sanitation projects. It is expected that participation in the project will also empower women and increase their involvement in community based projects. Currently WaterCredit is offered in India, Bangladesh, Uganda and Kenya and the average loan size is $120. The project targets the poorest populations because they tend to pay the highest price for vended water and lack access to safe drinking water. WaterCredit provides loans to finance household water and sewerage connections, toilets, sinks tube wells and water harvesting equipment.
The Conrad N. Hilton Foundation has been at the forefront of the West African Water Initiative (WAWI), contributing close to $24 million to support the project from 2002-2008. The initiative was a public-private partnership involving 14 strategic partners, and it generated more than $56 million in funds for three countries in West Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Niger.