Editor’s Note: This guest post is co-authored by Jonna Davis, Senior Program Manager for Dispensers for Safe Water in Kenya, and Nabil Mansouri, Program Manager in Malawi, both of Evidence Action. Jonna and Nabil describe how the program maintains user adoption rates in Kenya, Uganda, and Malawi. To learn more about Dispensers for Safe Water, read Evidence Action’s post for WASHfunders on the evidence-based origins of the program. Another post describes strategic efforts to diversify the initiative’s financing models.
On the face of it, Dispensers for Safe Water is easy to understand. Dispensers for Safe Water is a fast-growing initiative of Evidence Action that provides access to clean and safe water for close to three million people in Kenya, Uganda, and Malawi. It is slated to grow to 25 million users in the next five years. We do this by installing and maintaining chlorine dispensers directly at the water source where people in rural areas fetch their water.
Customers simply add half a teaspoon of diluted chlorine to the jerry can in which water is typically collected, dosed correctly to safely disinfect the drinking and cooking water. Chlorine, of course, is a very effective additive to water used around the world in sanitation systems that kills 99.9% of harmful bacteria that, in turn, cause diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases such as cholera.
Conveniently, chlorine dispensers are installed directly at the water source -- such as a borehole or simply an unprotected spring -- and are very easy to use. We see sustained adoption rates between 42% and 80% (such in Malawi where we have just begun an aggressive expansion).
We keep tabs on these adoption rates by regularly sampling cooking and drinking water in people’s homes to determine whether there is actually chlorine present in their water.
But getting people to use the dispensers to make water safe to drink is not achieved by the installation of dispensers alone. As we have seen time and again, a new gadget in and of itself is not enough for behaviour change to occur. We see high and sustained rates of adoption because Dispensers for Safe Water is more than just the dispenser. It’s the underlying foundation of community engagement, delivery, and ongoing maintenance that makes the program effective.
Here is how it works:
Expanding into a new areas involves significant preparation weeks ahead of the actual installation. Dispenser for Safe Water team members meet with community leaders to get their approval for a dispenser as well as to familiarize these key stakeholders with how and why dispensers work. After approval is granted, we work with those leaders to engage users in the ‘barn raising’ of the actual installation of the dispenser.
There are additional community meetings to elect a community ‘promoter’ -- typically a respected person in the community -- who is charged with maintaining and refilling the dispenser, and who reports any problems. The promoter also educates community members on how chlorine and the dispenser work, and why it’s important to disinfect the water.
The promoter is a very important part of the success of the dispenser in a given community. Adoption rates have been as much as 17 percentage points higher when the promoter's water tests positive for chlorine than when s/he does not.
Once the promoter is in place and installation and community education meetings have been completed, there is the ongoing maintenance of the dispensers. Dispensers that are empty or in disrepair are not going to be used by our customers over time. We know that the biggest driver of decreased adoption is empty or poorly maintained dispensers, which is why we have developed such a strong “last mile” delivery and maintenance network.
Evidence Action maintains the dispensers through a network of circuit riders on motorbikes who visit a target number of dispensers daily in their catchment area, deliver a three-month supply of chlorine to the promoter in charge of the dispenser in a given village, and repair anything that needs to be fixed.
Promoters and circuit riders use mobile phone technology for tracking this work--for issuing and resolving maintenance tickets, checking off steps in the supply chain and other tasks.
Economies of scale, combined with efforts to optimize the supply chain in the maintenance phase, ensure that the cost for Dispensers for Safe Water at scale is very low: just 50 cents per person per year. This makes Dispenser for Safe Water one of the most cost-effective WASH interventions with sustained high adoption rates on the market. With community engagement, promotion, and ongoing maintenance, users have a reliable product that is consistently used over time.
Editor’s Note: This guest post is authored by Christina Riechers, Director of Business Development and Strategy at Evidence Action. In her post, Christina outlines the lessons learned from efforts to ensure sustainability as the organization rapidly scales up its Dispensers for Safe Water program. Drawing from Evidence Action’s experience, she highlights the importance of diversified business models and describes the process of establishing strategic partnerships to expand the reach of the project. For more background on Dispensers for Safe Water program, read Evidence Action’s previous post, published last month on the WASHfunders Blog.
Evidence Action’s Dispensers for Safe Water program, an innovative and cost-effective system for water purification, is rapidly scaling up. Dispensers for Safe Water is currently providing safe drinking water to two million people in Eastern and Southern Africa, to grow to 25 million people by 2018.
Evidence Action was created a year ago to scale up proven development interventions to benefit tens of millions of people. As a result, we are well familiar with one of the main challenges of implementing large-scale development projects: ensuring that there is financial and operational sustainability over the long term. All too often, water access and water quality projects are implemented without a clear strategy for long-term sustainability, and infrastructure and technology end up in disrepair or disuse.
Evidence Action takes a different approach. For us, a key criteria for going to scale with an intervention is not only a strong evidence base for its effectiveness and impact, but also a sound business model and innovative financing. So what are we learning?
We Need Diversified Business Models for Scale
Dispensers for Safe Water’s business model calls for covering the costs for operating dispensers with carbon financing. Chlorine dispensers generate carbon credits by reducing the demand for boiling water with firewood, and by replacing wood burning with a low-carbon alternative. These carbon credits are verified by an independent auditor, and then sold to buyers looking to offset their carbon footprint or to meet mandated emissions targets. Because the on-going cost of filling and maintaining dispensers is so low - $0.50 per person per year when we’re rolled out at scale - even a low price of carbon could finance the program.
However, carbon credit prices have sunk to rock bottom levels. Even though we have been able to sell credits at high prices that --should these sales continue-- would enable us to meet our long-term financial sustainability plans, we wanted to have a Plan B. Moreover, the initial capital expenditure for growing the program requires other funding (carbon financing is a lagging source of funds, coming in only after people have been using the dispensers). As a result, we have been diversifying our funding sources. For up-front financing, for example, we have taken on loans from Kiva and grants from an innovation fund at USAID. For on-going servicing costs, we are branching out beyond carbon. We are exploring bundling charges for dispenser services with existing community payment mechanisms, and contracting with local governments to fund the chlorine for their constituents to make Dispensers for Safe Water like a low-cost utility service. In all of this we are committed to keeping chlorine free to end users to ensure maximum adoption.
Strategic Partners Are Essential For Going to Scale
We are also challenging ourselves to look at new ways of partnering with other organizations.
Our partnership with One Acre Fund is a case in point. One Acre Fund is a social enterprise that helps more than 180,000 farmers in East Africa double their maize yield. One Acre Fund staff work closely with rural farmers to extend loans, provides training on maximizing crop yield, and provides seeds and other products. The organization cares about the overall well-being of the farmer families, and as such, wanted to expand their efforts and offer low cost health interventions like chlorine for safe water.
When we first partnered in 2011, we thought we could simply piggyback on their last-mile distribution for local chlorine deliveries. But we quickly realized that there are key differences between their distribution and local engagement model and ours. For example,One Acre Fund field staff have a wide range of responsibilities that made the extra task of carrying chlorine with them to village visits burdensome. So we evolved our partnership so that it more closely aligns with our respective core competencies: One Acre Fund, committed to providing safe drinking water for its farmer families, now pays a certain price per farmer household per year to Dispensers for Safe Water for providing their families with access to clean drinking water. This is the same price they would pay to give farmers bottles for household use but without taxing their supply chain. We utilize our existing robust system of village health promoters who ensure the upkeep of dispensers at the water points, and circuit riders who deliver chlorine to the same districts where One Acre Fund operates.
The subsidy from One Acre Fund means further diversification of our funding portfolio, more rural households served, and a win-win partnership for all -- most of all for the community residents who have reliable access to safe drinking water.
Editor’s Note: This post is authored by Sanjay Banka, Director at Banka BioLoo, an Indian company that manufactures and promotes biodigester toilets for use in parts of the country where the lack of infrastructure prevents the use of more conventional sanitation facilities. In the piece, Sanjay discusses the development of the biotechnology used in the toilets and describes the successes and challenges that the company has experienced while working to improve sanitation in India.
Sanitation facilities in India are alarmingly poor with over 600 million people (half of India's population) having no access to toilets. This lack of access, coupled with other inadequacies in waste disposal, such as the Indian Railways’s open-chute toilet system wherein human waste drops on the rail tracks, poses health hazards, raises environmental concerns, and leads to water contamination.
To address India’s sanitation problems, the government, NGOs, non-profit organizations, donor agencies, development bodies, and the private sector have been working in their own way, often with very little concerted effort. The partnership between India’s Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) and Banka BioLoo, however, provides one example of how cross-sector collaboration can work to provide sanitation solutions. Using technology developed and licensed by the DRDO, the R&D arm of the Indian Ministry of Defence, Banka BioLoo is working to meet the need for basic, easy-to-install and hygienic human waste disposal mechanisms in areas without sewerage and other sanitation infrastructure.
The DRDO had been grappling with the challenge of managing and treating the fecal matter of its defence personnel. After several years of research, the Organization developed a set of bacteria that “eat away” at human waste. Having successfully used these bacteria to treat the night soil of soldiers guarding the Indian borders, in 2010, the DRDO decided to extend the benefits of the technology to the civilian population by licensing the bio-technology to commercial firms. A host of businesses, including Banka BioLoo, signed the transfer of technology. Since then, Banka BioLoo has developed the necessary infrastructure to inoculate the bacteria and has built a business model that positions bio-toilets as a cost-effective and environmentally-friendly sanitation solution.
Bio-digester technology treats human waste at the source. A collection of anaerobic bacteria that has been adapted to work at temperatures as low as -5°C and as high as 50°C act as inocula (seed material) to the bio-digesters and convert the organic human waste into water, methane, and carbon-dioxide. The anaerobic process inactivates the pathogens responsible for water-borne diseases and treats the fecal matter without the use of an external energy source.
The only by-products of the waste treatment process are pathogen-free water, which is good for gardening, and biogas, which can be used for cooking. Bio-toilets do not require sewage connectivity and because the process is self-contained, bio-toilets are also maintenance-free. While we explain the functioning of the system to users, no specific training is required.
Banka BioLoo employs a for-profit model in distributing its bio-toilets. This approach is consistent with the thinking that came up in discussion recently at the 2014 WASH Sustainability Forum in Amsterdam, where it was recognized that many households are able and willing to pay for good quality sanitation services. Unfortunately, many are being offered cheap and possibly sub-standard systems. As solution providers, we need to be wary of poor quality “solutions” and instead appeal to the aesthetic and aspirational needs of society. While affordability is certainly an issue, it should not come at the cost of developing a sub-par product.
While we strongly believe in the for-profit model to help ensure sustainability, we are also looking for alternate financing options for households that are unable to pay for the toilet outright. We are in discussion with government agencies and microfinance institutions to develop programs that would provide subsidies or microloans to consumers.
Banka BioLoo has also worked with charities and other development organizations to provide bio-toilets in underserved areas. In March 2013, some members of the student chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB), studying in Gitam University, decided to undertake a project to help provide sanitation facilities in Rudraram village, at the outskirts of Hyderabad in southern India. Using a combination of student efforts, input from family members, sponsored funds, and contributions from user families, Banka BioLoo, in partnership with EWB, installed five bio-toilets. In 2014, the project provided bio-toilets to 20 additional families. The student community is keen to develop a 10-kilometer radius around the university as an open defecation free area.
One remaining challenge in promoting the use of the toilets involves the perception among some Indians that sanitation is not worth paying for. Many are comfortable with defecating in the open. In promoting the bio-toilets, we explain the negative effects on the health and well-being of society -- particularly women and children -- that are associated with open defecation. As this understanding continues to develop in India, the demand for sanitation products, such as the bio-toilets, will grow. We are actively working in this direction, trying to provide economical and eco-friendly sanitation systems for all -- from the most marginalized populations to large institutions and corporations across various states in India -- while building up the good reputation of the latrine.
Join SustainableWASH.org for a 3-Part webinar series that will explore monitoring, evaluation and resolution in the field of water access, sanitation and hygiene. The series will have a particular focus on resolution. Each event will feature presentations from experts in the field and will provide an opportunity for attendees to ask questions.
TODAY, August 6: Reporting is Not Enough
Wednesday, August 27: Addressing the Resolution Gap
Wednesday, September 17: A Framework for Action
All webinars will be held from 10:00-11:30 am EDT.
If you have not registered for the series, you can register here, and will receive a link to join the webinar. If you have any questions or need assistance, please contact sustainability@WASHadvocates.org.
Editor’s Note: This guest blog post is authored by Alix Zwane, Executive Director of Evidence Action. In her post, Alix lauds the increased attention given to evidence-based innovations in development and describes the Dispensers for Safe Water initiative as an example of a WASH intervention grounded in this data-driven approach.
Evidence-based development innovations are finally all the rage. The UK's Department for International Development and USAID announced the Global Development Innovation Ventures (GDIV) Fund almost exactly a year ago to focus development investments on “innovative approaches with proven, radically successful results.” Just a few weeks ago, USAID launched its Global Development Lab that aims to “test and scale breakthrough development innovations.” And even more recently, a senior policy advisor to the president of the European Commission argued that evidence should trump politics and diplomacy for deciding on aid investments.
One example of how aspirations for data-driven development translate into actual, real projects that improve millions of peoples’ lives is the Dispensers for Safe Water initiative. Chlorine dispensers currently serve over two million people in East Africa and are on track to grow to four million people by the end of this year, and 25 million by 2018.
Chlorine dispensers installed directly at the water source represent an important innovation in the rural water sector. They solve a number of challenges that have hindered sustainable, quality services for cleaner water to date -- despite the billions that have been spent on water and sanitation projects. And because the approach has been vigorously tested, we can say definitively that chlorine dispensers work at a fraction of the cost of typical water projects, and at high adoption rates by people most in need of clean water.
What Are Chlorine Dispensers?
Dispensers are installed directly at the water source and contain enough chlorine for a community using the water source for about a month. A person collecting water turns a knob that releases enough chlorine to clean 20 liters of water -- the typical amount that people collect from the source and carry home. The dispensers are rugged and durable, and maintained and marketed by local health promoters who educate the community about the utility of adding small amounts of chlorine to the drinking water, and check and refill the dispensers as needed.
Chlorine is very cheap and effective at killing most bacterial and viral pathogens. Safety concerns with dilute chlorine are minimal, and it is widely used as a disinfectant in water treatment plants around the world. Chlorine can also provide residual protection for up to three days (depending on storage conditions), which means that it not only disinfects water, but can also prevent re-contamination.
Are People Healthier Because of Chlorine in their Water?
So what do we know about improving water quality for people? There have been a number of review articles recently that have assessed the evidence for drinking water quality interventions in developing countries. One meta study that analyzed 65 separate evaluations concluded that point-of-use (or, in the case of dispensers, point-of-source) water quality interventions appear to be highly effective -- and indeed, more effective than water supply or source treatment in reducing diarrhea -- but that this is very sensitive to the ability of the program to sustain high rates of product adoption. Obviously, a product cannot provide health benefits if people don’t use it. Another systematic review of the evidence showed that there are reductions of up to 40% of childhood diarrhea among people using the product.
Are People Actually Using Chlorine Dispensers?
The case for cost-effective impacts for dispensers rests not only on the potential for health impact. People actually have to use water treatment products if they are to be effective. The sustained use of dispensers has been documented via a rigorous randomized controlled trial (PDF) in which adoption held at about 50% for three years in the treatment group assigned to dispensers. We continue to see average adoption rates over 40% in areas where baseline water treatment with chlorine is less than 10%. For anyone in the WASH field, these are impressive rates. Adoption of chlorine at the point of service is high because it is cheap, convenient, salient, and public.
Dispensers are Sustainable and Cost-Effective
Chlorine dispensers are inexpensive, costing less than $0.50 per person per year at scale. This is considerably lower than the large infrastructure programs that may not be sufficiently invested in over time, and then fall into disuse. The low cost per person has also allowed us explore new financing models, such as using carbon credits. Chlorine reduces the need for boiling water, so dispensers can be financed that way. And because chlorine dispensers are inexpensive to maintain, carbon revenue covers the costs even as the initiative expands to serve 25 million people in 2018.
We believe that evidence and rigorous testing of new development approaches is critical in order to scale what works to reach millions, and are pleased that the global development field is moving in the direction of being more rigorously data-driven and evidence-based.
Editor’s Note: This post was authored by Carmen da Silva Wells, programme officer at IRC. In the lead up to the Fifth WASH Sustainability Forum in the Netherlands at the end of this month, Carmen writes about the increasing recognition of the importance of sustainability among actors in the WASH sector. Referencing a mapping of sustainability tools that IRC’s Triple-S project recently undertook, she highlights one of the key findings: that while there are many tools that have been developed to assess and promote sustainability in the WASH sector, work still remains around how these tools are applied. This post originally appeared on IRC’s blog here.
Registration for next week’s Forum in Amsterdam is full, but if you’re in the area, you can add yourself to the waitlist. And if you’ll be attending the conference and are involved in the WASH sector from a philanthropic angle, join the WASH Grantmakers Network at their orientation dinner before the conference on June 29th. Details on how to RSVP can be found here.
Sustainability is a hot topic in the development sector at large. In the water and sanitation sector, there have been a range of events, partnerships and websites dedicated to collectively recognising, understanding and addressing sustainability challenges. In March this year, for example, the Australian WASH sector organised the 'WASH for everyone, everywhere' conference in Brisbane exploring the topic in light of the post-2015 development agenda.
The Amsterdam Forum will be held on June 30 and July 1. It is the fifth in a series of international WASH sustainability events organised by a coalition of organisations. IRC, Aguaconsult, Global Water Challenge and WASH Advocates have been core driving members behind the WASH Sustainability Forum series. This year's event is also supported by UNICEF, the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program.
Exploring sustainability tools
According to Harold Lockwood of Aguaconsult, one of the organisations behind the fifth edition, there is a definite shift in mind-sets since the first one in 2010: "There is a collective recognition, as well as growing momentum and support around moving towards a service delivery approach. We seem to be at a tipping point, where discussions initially focused on why we need to focus on sustainability, but are now moving to the 'how to' part of the equation for different actors.”
The 5th WASH Sustainability Forum aims to move donors, civil society and governments towards application of sustainability principles and tools. One of the significant inputs to the event is a study of WASH sustainability tools conducted by Aguaconsult as part of Sustainable Services at Scale, or Triple-S, an IRC-led initiative. A Triple-S Working Paper, 'Mapping of WASH sustainability tools' contains the findings of the mapping, as well as the outcomes of an online survey looking into demand for sustainability tools and a 2-part webinar series.
The good news is that there are plenty of tools out there for understanding, measuring, or predicting sustainability. The assessment included a review of over 220 tools, and the 25 tools with clear content and methodology for understanding, measuring, or predicting sustainability have been presented as 1-page practical summaries in the Working Paper. Altogether these 25 sustainability tools have been applied 92 times in 52 countries, with most addressing the technical, institutional, and management areas that affect sustainability.
There are also notable gaps, such as tools that can be applied across all stages of the service life-cycle, tools that address sanitation and hygiene interventions and that can be applied to urban or peri-urban areas.
According to Ryan Schweitzer, Claire Grayson and Harold Lockwood, authors of the Working Paper, the emergence of clusters of similar sustainability assessment tools is a positive signal that a new paradigm is emerging in the sector. However, most tools are driven by external development partner organisations. Therefore, one of their key findings is that much more effort needs to be made to align tools with country monitoring systems and sector capacities and to use the data that these tools generate in order to improve services.
This challenge of linking tools with national systems – and indeed showcasing some national government tools – will be one of the core topics at the Forum. Representatives from government, private sector, donors and NGOs will engage in a panel debate to talk about how to improve the application and alignment of tools so that investments in the sector deliver services that last.
This year’s 5th annual WASH Sustainability Forum will take place from June 30 to July 1 at the RAI in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. While previous WASH Sustainability Forums focused on concepts underpinning sustainability, this year’s Forum is oriented around the application of sustainability principles to WASH projects.
To introduce this theme, the WASH Grantmakers Network (WGN), together with Xylem Watermark, will host an orientation dinner in advance of the Forum, on June 29th. The dinner will provide guests with an overview of the Forum and offer tips on making the most of your attendance.
WGN is coordinated by WASH Advocates and is an affinity group for philanthropic organizations focused on WASH issues. To RSVP for this free dinner, contact Ben Mann at bmann@WASHadvocates.org or +1-202-293-4002. Registration for the Forum is also available online here.
Each of the two hour-long webinars will share the results of a landscaping study of sustainability-related tools for WASH that was carried out by Aguaconsult as part of the Sustainable Service at Scale (Triple-S) Initiative.
March 4th (9 am EST, 2 pm UTC) and March 18th (10 am EST, 2 pm UTC)
March 4th Presenters:
- Sam Godfrey, UNICEF
- Heather Skilling, USAID
- Agnes Montangero, HELVETAS
- Julia Boulenouar, Aguaconsult
March 18th Presenters:
- Andre Olschewski, SKAT
- Antonio Manuel Rodríguez Serrano, Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank
- Ryan Schweitzer, Aguaconsult
To register for the webinar series, click here.
Editor’s Note: This guest blog post was authored by Ben Seidl, program director at World Water Relief, an NGO launched in 2008 with the goal of bringing sustainable water purification solutions to people in developing nations. In his post, Ben discusses the push for better monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in the WASH sector and the challenges and opportunities that this trend presents for small NGOs. Ben emphasizes the importance of local engagement as the key to both effective M&E and, ultimately, project sustainability.
As the WASH sector continues to expand and strengthen its role in global health, the sector’s trends and objectives have become more data-oriented and results-focused. Mobile, field-level technology has enabled NGOs to undertake data processing and monitoring of water resources in real-time…a practice that was previously only afforded to large municipal utilities and corporations. While this technological leap has ushered in a new era of transparency and reporting, there are some fundamental building blocks of sustainability that are beyond data.
Human capital is still the true driver behind sustainability and M&E in the WASH sector. Local, dedicated stakeholders are the true source of long-term sustainability and accurate, reliable monitoring and evaluation. Without the involvement of these local community stakeholders, the sustainability of any WASH project will undoubtedly wither over time.
As Program Director for World Water Relief in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, my team and I are tasked with building a responsive and flexible monitoring program to ensure that our projects are creating measurable impact and consistent WASH service delivery. World Water Relief is an NGO with limited manpower and resources. Thus, we are faced with the challenge of producing high-quality WASH projects with a high level of feedback and sustainability on a shoestring budget.
Without the funds for advanced technology and data collection, we are tasked with finding alternative ways to ensure that our WASH projects are meeting these three criteria:
I) Beneficiaries’ needs
II) Industry and international standards
III) Donor expectations
To address each of these criteria in a cost-effective way, we need to craft local, low-technology relationship networks to implement and feed our data and sustainability measures. As an organization of less than ten employees, we depend on the passion, dedication, and involvement of the stakeholders in the communities we work in to be the drivers behind our sustainability and M&E initiatives.
One such program we employ in both Haiti and the Dominican Republic is the Youth Water and Hygiene Club. This type of school-based youth programming has been championed by the WASH sector as an intervention capable of providing youth with leadership training, experiential learning, and an in-depth opportunity to learn and practice water, sanitation, and hygiene solutions firsthand. Our Youth Water and Hygiene Club has been both catalyzing for the participating youth and beneficial to the schools and communities they serve. Students are empowered to be active participants in improving and maintaining the World Water Relief WASH infrastructure in their respective schools and communities. This means helping to clean drinking water stations and hand washing stations, chlorinating potable water holding tanks, initiating trash and recycling collection, teaching WASH principles to student peers, and providing direct monitoring and feedback on WASH service delivery.
The second benefit of a school-integrated program like this is that M&E is conducted on a daily basis at each WASH in Schools site. The Youth Water and Hygiene Clubs provide detailed and dedicated reporting on the status of their schools WASH projects. The World Water Relief program mangers in both the DR and Haiti are in daily communication with the club officers and have frequent regional meetings that feature 82 youth from 16 schools. These meetings provide an excellent opportunity for club leaders to learn from each other and for World Water Relief to continue empowering an inter-connected network of dedicated WASH youth.
The ultimate goal of WASH M&E initiatives is to provide insightful field-level information and analysis that drives accurate and timely project oversight. Ideally, WASH implementers are then able to relay these informative reports to donors and stakeholders in order to prove the efficacy of WASH projects around the world. The rapid progression of technology over the past decades has greatly enhanced the sector’s ability to create and share these important results. However, when we think about sustainability and evaluation, we must remember that data and observation can only take us so far. True sustainability still lies in the hands of the local users and stakeholders.
As the WASH sector moves forward in its pursuit of real-time tracking and evaluation of project efficacy, we mustn’t lose sight of the ability and potential of end-user involvement. Data can inform and guide, but the root of sustainability is still built through long-term relationships, strong personal communication, and direct face-to-face participation.
Editor’s Note: This guest post was authored by André Olschewski, water, sanitation and environmental management specialist at the Skat Foundation, a non-profit based in Switzerland. The post builds from a piece that André wrote for WASHfunders.org in June that described the EU-funded WASHTech project and its Technology Applicability Framework (TAF), a decision-making tool that helps users determine if a particular WASH technology will be sustainable in a given context. Here, André introduces the counterpart to the TAF, the Technology Introduction Process (TIP), that guides practitioners in introducing a technology once a determination of sustainability has been made.
The Technology Applicability Framework (TAF) is a tool to assess the applicability of a WASH technology in a particular context and its potential to be adopted on a large scale. Under the WASHTech project, the TAF has been tested in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Uganda on 13 different WASH technologies including the ventilated improved pit latrine, urine diverting dry toilet, rope pump, India Mark 2 Handpump, and solar powered pumps for small piped schemes or sand dams. Since then, it has been successfully applied outside the WASHTech project in Tanzania and in Nicaragua, even without any direct training. Potential users have also expressed an interest to adapt and apply the TAF to other technologies such as water point mapping tools.
WASHTech has produced a short video explaining what the TAF is and how it works. Using the example of a solar powered pump in Ghana, the animated video summarizes how the TAF captures the issues around sustainable service provision. It also features interviews with users of the TAF (such as local government officials) who offer perspectives on the added value that the framework provides.
But what are the next steps if a technology has passed the TAF testing and if you want to introduce the WASH technology for services on a larger scale? To support actors in the WASH sector in planning and management of the introduction of a WASH technology, the WASHTech project has developed a generic guide for technology introduction, the Technology Introduction Process (TIP). The TIP -- as with the TAF -- follows the spirit of the African saying: “If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.”
For too long, efforts to introduce WASH technologies have been led by a few actors, mostly national governments and development partners, or a few isolated innovators. This often happened without proper involvement of other actors, such as the users, local political leaders, or the private sector. Increasingly, approaches such as Self Supply or Community-Led Total Sanitation are being promoted. These put more focus on user investments and the capacity of the local private sector to supply products and provide services. However, due to the limited financial capacities of households, some WASH technologies and services will still be subsidized.
The TIP guide supports the WASH sector in developing a specific process to introduce a WASH technology. At the core of the TIP, the tasks of key actors involved are defined for three phases of the introduction process:
- the invention phase, which includes the development and testing of the technology and the preparation for the launch;
- the tipping point phase; and
- the uptake and use phase.
For each of the phases, the TIP provides a generic set of tasks that should be carried out by specific actors. During the testing, the TAF can be used to develop the introduction process further and to monitor the technology and its performance.
In all three WASHTech pilot countries, government institutions have used the TIP to develop country specific guidelines for technology introduction. To aid this process, we’ve provided the generic TIP matrix, as well as examples of specific matrices that have been developed for two different cost models -- the market based approach (e.g. for Self Supply) and for a model where capital investments are subsidized. All relevant actors have been involved in developing the specific guidelines. The guidelines reflect the country specific policies on WASH service provision, subsidies, and decentralisation.
Our online resource base provides access to all documents on TAF, TIP and reports on results such as technology briefs. All documents are in the public domain. TAF and TIP users are invited to upload their case studies and to share their experiences on the user interface. For more information please contact me at email@example.com.
The TAF and TIP were developed under the WASHTech project. The WASHTech consortium comprises: Skat Foundation – Switzerland; IRC International Water & Sanitation Centre – Netherlands; WaterAid - UK, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Uganda; Cranfield University – UK; Water and Sanitation for Africa (WSA) – Burkina Faso; Network for Water and Sanitation (NETWAS) – Uganda; Training, Research and Networking for Development (TREND) – Ghana; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) – Ghana.