Global efforts to provide improved water and sanitation for all are gaining momentum, but serious gaps in funding continue to hamper progress, according to a new report from the World Health Organization on behalf of UN-Water.
The UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS 2014), published biannually, presents data from 94 countries and 23 external support agencies. It offers a comprehensive analysis of strengths and challenges in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) provision within and across countries.
“Water and sanitation are essential to human health. Political commitment to ensure universal access to these vital services is at an all-time high,” said Dr Maria Neira, Director of the WHO Department of Public Health and the Environment. “International aid for the sector is on the rise. But we continue to see major financial gaps at the country level, particularly in rural areas.”
Strengthened political commitment
Two thirds of the 94 countries surveyed recognized drinking-water and sanitation as a universal human right in national legislation. More than 80% reported having national policies in place for drinking-water and sanitation, and more than 75% have policies for hygiene.
This strengthened political commitment at national levels is reflected in global discussions around the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Universal and equitable access to water, sanitation and hygiene have been proposed as global targets by the Member State working group tasked with developing the SDGs.
“Now is the time to act,” says Michel Jarraud, Chair of UN-Water and Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization. “We may not know yet what the post-2015 sustainable development agenda will look like. But we do know that water and sanitation must be clear priorities if we are to create a future that allows everyone to live healthy, prosperous and dignified lives.”
Increased aid, better targeting of resources
International aid for water and sanitation is on the rise: According to the report, financial commitments for WASH increased by 30% between 2010 and 2012—from US $8.3 billion to $10.9 billion.
Aid commitments are increasingly targeted to underserved regions, notably sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia and South-eastern Asia. GLAAS 2014 also highlights the strengthened targeting of WASH resources for the poor: more than 75% of countries reported having specific measures in their national plans to provide water and sanitation for low-income populations.
“For our partners, especially at country level, GLAAS is key for achieving sound, evidence-based decision-making,” says President John Agyekum Kufuor, Chair of Sanitation and Water for All. “The report guides governments in knowing where progress in WASH is being made and where more resources need to be allocated.”
Still major gaps
Despite these gains, 2.5 billion men, women and children around the world lack access to basic sanitation services. About 1 billion people continue to practice open defecation. An additional 748 million people do not have ready access to an improved source of drinking-water. And hundreds of millions of people live without clean water and soap to wash their hands, facilitating the spread of diarrhoeal disease, the second leading cause of death among children under five.
Many other water-borne diseases, such as cholera, typhoid and hepatitis, are prone to explosive outbreaks. Poor sanitation and hygiene can also lead to debilitating diseases affecting scores of people in the developing world, like intestinal worms, blinding trachoma and schistosomiasis.
The report cites a number of key challenges, including:
- Insufficient financing: Though international aid for the WASH sector has increased, national funding needs continue to outweigh available resources. Eighty per cent (80%) of countries reported that current levels of financing are insufficient to meet their targets for drinking-water and sanitation.
- Funding gap in rural areas: While a vast majority of people who lack access to basic sanitation live in rural areas, the bulk of financing continues to benefit urban residents. Expenditures for rural sanitation comprise less than 10% of total WASH financing.
- Weak national capacity to execute WASH plans: Despite strong political support for universal access to water and sanitation, fewer than one-third of the countries surveyed for this report have national WASH plans that are being fully implemented, funded and regularly reviewed.
- Critical gaps in monitoring: Reliable data is vital to identify gaps in access to WASH services and inform policy decisions. Though many countries have WASH monitoring frameworks in place, a majority reported inconsistent or fragmented gathering of data and weak capacity for analysis.
- Neglect for WASH in schools, health facilities: Water and sanitation services in schools can ensure that children, especially girls, stay in school and learn lifelong hygiene habits. In health clinics, WASH services ensure the privacy and safety of patients, particularly expectant mothers during delivery, and are essential to prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. Yet, GLAAS data indicates that less than 30% of surveyed countries have national WASH plans for institutional settings that were being fully implemented, funded and regularly reviewed.
The GLAAS report and related press materials (press release, fact sheet and frequently asked questions) are available online here.
See a related blog post by John Oldfield, CEO of WASH Advocates, here.
“UN reveals major gaps in water and sanitation – especially in rural areas.” World Health Organization, UN-Water Press Release 11/19/2014.
We’re pleased to share that a recently released report from New Philanthropy Capital recognized WASHfunders.org as a top innovation in global philanthropy. The report, 10 Innovations in Global Philanthropy, praises the information on funding flows available through WASHfunders’ mapping tool and notes that the site reflects the broader push for open data in the philanthropic sector.
WASHfunders was also selected as the ‘Experts’ Top Pick’ among the innovations featured within the report, with Cath Tillotson of Scorpio Partnership commenting that, “If you define innovation as doing something differently, bigger or better, WASHfunders ticks all the boxes.”
WASHfunders and other innovations featured in the report will be discussed on a webinar to be held Wednesday, November 12th. Registration information and additional details are available here.
NPC’s report has been covered widely in philanthropic circles. Additional coverage includes an interview with WASHfunders’ lead, Seema Shah, on Philanthropy Age, a write up on Pro Bono Australia, and a mention on Health Affairs. In August, our Twitter feed was also cited as a top ten Twitter influencer in water and development by the Guardian.
We’re honored to receive the recognition and understand that the value of WASHfunders ultimately depends on our engagement with -- and usefulness to -- those working in the WASH sector! To contribute case studies, suggest recommended reading for the Knowledge Center, or submit a guest blog, contact us as email@example.com.
Editor’s Note: This guest post was co-authored by Dr. Mary Renwick, Director of the Water Innovation Program at Winrock International, and Dr. Cristina Rumbaitis del Rio, Senior Associate Director at Rockefeller Foundation. In their post, Dr. Renwick and Dr. Rumbaitis del Rio discuss the advantages of Integrated Multiple-Use Water Services (MUS) and describe SolutionMUS, the implementation methodology developed by Winrock International to scale up this integrated approach to water service provision. On November 13, they’ll be presenting a funder webinar on ways to sustainably improve people’s health and livelihoods through investments in integrated water services. For more information and to RSVP for the event, contact Ryan Leeds at RLeeds@rockfound.org.
For over two billion people living in absolute poverty, water is everything. Access to safe and sustainable water increases peoples’ resilience and improves their health and livelihoods by supporting their basic needs -- from drinking, hygiene, and sanitation to food production and income generation. Unfortunately, the way in which policymakers and water sector architects design and deliver water services to poor communities is often disconnected from the way these communities actually use water.
The current approach to water service delivery usually focuses on providing water for a single use -- typically drinking or irrigation. Not surprisingly, once the water is available people begin using it for all their needs. This means that drinking water systems are used for watering livestock, producing food and supporting small water-dependent enterprises such as brickmaking or beer brewing. Likewise, irrigation water is used for drinking, bathing and other unplanned uses such as watering livestock and home gardens. The use of single-use systems for unintended purposes is a widespread phenomenon that often leads to inadvertent yet serious consequences including the spread of disease, overuse of resources, user conflict, and system breakdown. Ultimately, this gap between planned services and actual needs undermines the intended goal of water service provision -- improved health and livelihoods -- and leads to sustainability problems for water services and resources.
Integrated Multiple-Use Water Services (MUS) support transformative change by providing water services that meet peoples’ multiple domestic and productive water needs. MUS use communities’ self-identified needs as a starting point to plan, finance, and manage integrated water services. In addition, MUS take into account all potential water sources (rain, ground and surface water) to design financially and environmentally sustainable water services that meet actual consumer needs and preferences.
In the past 15 years, a growing body of evidence indicates that planning and managing water services for multiple uses can enhance health, improve food security, increase incomes, and reduce workloads for women and children (Loevinsohn et. al., 2014; Evans, et. al., 2013; Hall, et. al 2012; Renwick, et al., 2007; van Hoeve and van Koppen, 2005; van Hoeve, 2004; Waughray, Lovell, and Mazhangara,1998; VanDer Hoek, Feenstra, and Konradsen, 2002; Molle and Renwick, 2004). Results from on-the-ground programs in Burkina Faso, Nepal, Niger, Tanzania and other locations suggests that MUS provide the following significant advantages over single-use services:
- More income and benefits (improved health, nutrition, time savings, food security and social empowerment) for a wider range of people;
- Decreased vulnerability and increased resiliency for households through diversified livelihood strategies and increased food security;
- Enhanced reduction of poverty using methods that address the multiple dimensions of poverty simultaneously such as poor health, inadequate resources and lack of skills; and
- Increased sustainability of water services through productive water use that generates enough income to cover on-going operation, maintenance and replacement costs.
Interest in MUS has accelerated as more implementers, governments, and donors design, invest in, and implement integrated development programs. Correspondingly, the demand for a well-defined, evidence-based implementation methodology has grown. Winrock International has addressed this methodological gap by developing SolutionMUS, an open initiative to scale-up multiple-use water services (MUS). SolutionMUS provides a clear conceptual framework, step-by-step implementation guidance and a range of illustrative examples from different contexts. SolutionMUS draws on internationally recognized best practices and builds on and complements the efforts of other early MUS innovators. The approach extends beyond integrated water services by using targeted, cost-effective programs to amplify benefits in health, nutrition, food security, income generation, livelihoods diversification, and environmental sustainability. Since 2005, Winrock has worked with local and international organizations to develop, test and refine the SolutionMUS approach in partnership with local governments, local and international non-governmental organizations, and the local private sector. Our efforts in seven countries have improved the health and livelihoods of 500,000 people.
SolutionMUS is flexible. It does not need to be a stand-alone approach, but can add value to ongoing efforts to provide water services to people living in poverty. Major features of the approach include:
- A clear, consistent conceptual framework, technical standards, and step-by-step process;
- Impact-boosting programs that enhance people’s health and livelihoods, and contribute to environmental sustainability;
- Rigorous field testing and evaluation;
- An active learning and sharing platform to encourage continuous improvement; and
- A growing package of technical support and training products for implementers, funders, policymakers, and researchers.
Want to learn more?
Join us on Thursday, November 13 at 11:30 ET when Rockefeller Foundation, along with Winrock International, will host a funder webinar on integrated water services. The webinar will explain how you can:
- Achieve a higher return on every dollar spent on water services;
- Ensure the sustainability of your investments; and
- Tackle the multi-dimensional aspects of poverty, improve health and nutrition, increase food security, diversify livelihoods, and protect the environment.
Please RSVP here to participate in the webinar or contact Ryan Leeds (RLeeds@rockfound.org) for additional information.
Editor’s Note: This guest post is authored by Greg Allgood, MSPH, PhD, Vice President at World Vision, where he helps lead their water, sanitation, and hygiene efforts. He is also the retired Founder of the P&G Children’s Safe Drinking Water Program. In his post, Dr. Allgood affirms that, despite recent focus on innovative business solutions in WASH, philanthropic institutions play a crucial role in solving the global water crisis. He also encourages implementing organizations to participate in a survey sponsored by World Vision that will generate aggregated estimates of the number of people reached with WASH. The survey can be accessed here.
I applaud the work to create sustained business models providing clean drinking water; however, we need to remember that philanthropy has a critical role in reaching the poorest of the poor.
As a person who spent 27 years with the private sector, I know the power of brands and the resources that can be mobilized based on using a for-profit model. And I believe that everyone should have clean water as well as adequate sanitation and hygiene that is sustained. But, I also know that the base of the pyramid -- the billions of people living in poverty -- represent a diverse population. Unfortunately, there are hundreds of millions of people who do not have clean water and cannot currently afford to pay for access to water.
In my visits to villages in the developing world, I frequently meet with people who do not have the resources to invest in clean water. Women have told me that they’d gladly pay for water if they had the money, but they can’t even afford the few pennies it takes to buy salt. People like these are probably best served by a philanthropic model that builds up the capacity of the community instead of investment in a for-profit model that may quickly fail and discourage future private sector investment.
In the development community, it seems recently that the voice for innovative business solutions to solve the global water crisis is drowning out the legitimate role of philanthropy. Both are needed. My organization, World Vision, -- like many other non-profit groups -- reaches into the hardest to reach places to provide clean water. We are playing a role to help enable governments to serve their people with clean water and to lift communities out of poverty so that the private sector can function.
Furthermore, I frequently hear that charity isn’t going to solve the problem of the global water crisis. This is a misleading statement. Philanthropy or charity is playing a big and critical role in solving the global water crisis. But, I agree that philanthropy alone will not solve the crisis. We need philanthropic and private sector investment as well as governments all playing their role.
The good news is that there’s growing confidence that we can solve the global water crisis by 2030. The scale of current efforts is estimated to reach 50,000 people a day in Sub-Saharan Africa with clean water. For perspective, World Vision, one of the largest providers of clean water, is reaching one new person with clean water every 30 seconds. And, we have plans to do even more.
While it’s true that there is still a gap that we need to fill to make sure that everyone has clean water, dignified sanitation, and proper hygiene, isn’t it best that we give adequate voice to the role of charity in solving the global water crisis?
In order to better quantify the role of philanthropy in doing their share to help solve the global water crisis, World Vision has commissioned a survey by KPMG. We are asking WASH implementing organizations to participate in a brief survey. It should take less than 20 minutes to complete. The survey results from all responding organizations will be used by KPMG to generate an aggregated estimate of the people who will be reached this year and next year with WASH. The overall purpose is to show the progress being made and the gaps needed to fill in order to solve the global water crisis. We anticipate that the combined tally of people being reached will be significant and help give a stronger voice to the legitimate and critical role of philanthropy.
Here is a link to the survey: KPMG World Vision survey
Editor’s Note: This guest post was authored by Leith Greenslade, Vice-Chair at the MDG Health Alliance, a special initiative of the Office of the United Nations Special Envoy for Financing the Health Millennium Development Goals. To coincide with the Global Day of Action for Child Survival, Leith writes about the relationship between toilets and childhood stunting, describing the scope of the problem and discussing the potential for improved sanitation through public-private partnerships. The original version of this post appeared here.
October 16th is Global Day of Action for Child Survival and I’m thinking about my mother…
“Don’t ever, ever eat in the toilet!” When I grew up I imagined every mother in the world admonished her children with this warning. If you’ve grown up hearing this message, as so many children in middle and high income countries have, you simply cannot think of food and toilets in the same sentence without some discomfort. And yet it turns out the relationship between food and toilets is much more positive than our mothers ever led us to believe.
Quite simply, children who grow up in communities who use toilets are less likely to be malnourished and children who grow up in communities that defecate openly are much more likely to become what is called “stunted”, a horrible word that means much more than just being too short for your age and describes a condition that slows mental as well as physical development preventing children from reaching their full potentials.
How does the relationship between toilets and stunting work? The evidence is rolling in. Children who grow up surrounded by feces -- animal and human -- ingest it constantly which can trigger a disorder of the small intestine called “environmental enteropathy”. The intestinal walls of children who have this condition constantly "leak" bacteria into the blood stream causing chronic low-grade infections that consume vast amounts of energy to fight, leaving less nutrients available for growth.
Small problem?…Not exactly. An estimated 1 billion people practice open defecation globally and 165 million children are stunted, with the greatest concentrations of both in countries like India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Sudan, Nepal, China, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mozambique and Cambodia. In these countries, open defecation and childhood stunting have enormous health and economic costs. Globally, they are major contributors to the 6.3 million child deaths that occur each year, most from infectious diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhea, cost hundreds of billions of dollars in medical treatment for those who get sick, and significantly depress economic growth and development.
India is the eye of the storm with the world’s highest concentrations of open defecation (600 million), stunted children (62 million) and child deaths (1.3 million). To accelerate investments in reducing open defecation and improving child nutrition in India, the United Nations Foundation, the MDG Health Alliance and WASH Advocates co-hosted a discussion in September with leading experts to explore how public-private partnerships could tackle the sanitation/nutrition challenge in a more integrated way.
Participants included the Public Health Foundation of India’s Ramanan Laxminarayan, UNICEF’s Sanjay Wijesekera, Jean Humphrey from Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Analia Mendez of Unilever, Lucy Sullivan from the 1000 Days Initiative, and Gardiner Harris from the New York Times, whose scathing article on the lack of access to toilets in India inspired the conversation. The discussion was in support of the UN Secretary-General’s Every Woman Every Child movement.
The panel acknowledged that food interventions alone can close only about a third of the average growth deficit of Asian and African children and that the global development community has substantially underestimated the contribution of sanitation and hygiene to childhood growth. Although there was agreement that increasing access to locally designed, manufactured and marketed toilets in participation with the private sector is a critical part of the solution (with Jim McHale from American Standard sharing details of their success in Bangladesh with the SaTo toilet and Analia Mendez outlining Unilever’s new Uniloo project), the panel argued for a big push to increase demand for toilets.
Gardiner Harris cited the recent SQUAT survey that revealed a strong preference for open defecation among older males in India and the work of the Rice Institute’s Dean Spears which shows that Hindus are 40% more likely than Muslims to practice open defecation, a factor that accounts for the large (18%) child mortality gap between Hindus and Muslims. Experts agreed education efforts and incentives to encourage toilet use should target the sub-populations most resistant to change.
Despite barriers on both the demand and supply sides, panelists acknowledged that political commitment for ending open defecation has never been stronger. At the global level the United Nations Deputy Secretary-General, Jan Eliasson, is leading the End Open Defecation campaign and the Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, announced the Swachh Bharat Mission with the goal of ending open defecation in India by 2019, to coincide with Mahatma Gandhi’s 150th birthday. There is now an opportunity for other stakeholders, especially the private sector, to fully engage with these public partners to drive down open defecation rates and simultaneously invest in child nutrition interventions. By delivering sanitation and nutrition investments together to the largest populations of children living in the open defecation communities, the deaths of many more children could be prevented and the lifelong impacts of stunting dramatically reduced.
Almost fifteen years ago the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out to halve child hunger, reduce child deaths by two thirds and double access to toilets. With just 450 days left until the MDG deadline, the world has managed to reduce childhood stunting by 35%, child mortality by 50%, and those without basic sanitation by 30% -- impressive, but not enough to achieve the targets. In the time remaining, we need to pull out all stops to build new public-private partnerships to invest aggressively in integrated sanitation and nutrition solutions prioritizing the largest populations of children who grow up constantly exposed to feces.
If you have ideas for a new sanitation/nutrition public-private partnership in any of the countries listed above please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org or send an email to email@example.com.
Editor’s Note: This guest post is co-authored by Jonna Davis, Senior Program Manager for Dispensers for Safe Water in Kenya, and Nabil Mansouri, Program Manager in Malawi, both of Evidence Action. Jonna and Nabil describe how the program maintains user adoption rates in Kenya, Uganda, and Malawi. To learn more about Dispensers for Safe Water, read Evidence Action’s post for WASHfunders on the evidence-based origins of the program. Another post describes strategic efforts to diversify the initiative’s financing models.
On the face of it, Dispensers for Safe Water is easy to understand. Dispensers for Safe Water is a fast-growing initiative of Evidence Action that provides access to clean and safe water for close to three million people in Kenya, Uganda, and Malawi. It is slated to grow to 25 million users in the next five years. We do this by installing and maintaining chlorine dispensers directly at the water source where people in rural areas fetch their water.
Customers simply add half a teaspoon of diluted chlorine to the jerry can in which water is typically collected, dosed correctly to safely disinfect the drinking and cooking water. Chlorine, of course, is a very effective additive to water used around the world in sanitation systems that kills 99.9% of harmful bacteria that, in turn, cause diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases such as cholera.
Conveniently, chlorine dispensers are installed directly at the water source -- such as a borehole or simply an unprotected spring -- and are very easy to use. We see sustained adoption rates between 42% and 80% (such in Malawi where we have just begun an aggressive expansion).
We keep tabs on these adoption rates by regularly sampling cooking and drinking water in people’s homes to determine whether there is actually chlorine present in their water.
But getting people to use the dispensers to make water safe to drink is not achieved by the installation of dispensers alone. As we have seen time and again, a new gadget in and of itself is not enough for behaviour change to occur. We see high and sustained rates of adoption because Dispensers for Safe Water is more than just the dispenser. It’s the underlying foundation of community engagement, delivery, and ongoing maintenance that makes the program effective.
Here is how it works:
Expanding into a new areas involves significant preparation weeks ahead of the actual installation. Dispenser for Safe Water team members meet with community leaders to get their approval for a dispenser as well as to familiarize these key stakeholders with how and why dispensers work. After approval is granted, we work with those leaders to engage users in the ‘barn raising’ of the actual installation of the dispenser.
There are additional community meetings to elect a community ‘promoter’ -- typically a respected person in the community -- who is charged with maintaining and refilling the dispenser, and who reports any problems. The promoter also educates community members on how chlorine and the dispenser work, and why it’s important to disinfect the water.
The promoter is a very important part of the success of the dispenser in a given community. Adoption rates have been as much as 17 percentage points higher when the promoter's water tests positive for chlorine than when s/he does not.
Once the promoter is in place and installation and community education meetings have been completed, there is the ongoing maintenance of the dispensers. Dispensers that are empty or in disrepair are not going to be used by our customers over time. We know that the biggest driver of decreased adoption is empty or poorly maintained dispensers, which is why we have developed such a strong “last mile” delivery and maintenance network.
Evidence Action maintains the dispensers through a network of circuit riders on motorbikes who visit a target number of dispensers daily in their catchment area, deliver a three-month supply of chlorine to the promoter in charge of the dispenser in a given village, and repair anything that needs to be fixed.
Promoters and circuit riders use mobile phone technology for tracking this work--for issuing and resolving maintenance tickets, checking off steps in the supply chain and other tasks.
Economies of scale, combined with efforts to optimize the supply chain in the maintenance phase, ensure that the cost for Dispensers for Safe Water at scale is very low: just 50 cents per person per year. This makes Dispenser for Safe Water one of the most cost-effective WASH interventions with sustained high adoption rates on the market. With community engagement, promotion, and ongoing maintenance, users have a reliable product that is consistently used over time.
Editor’s Note: This guest post is authored by our colleagues at the U.S. Water Partnership, who announced the launch of H2infO, a new web platform that provides global access to U.S.-generated data and knowledge on WASH. The official launch, hosted by Catherine Novelli, Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth, Energy and the Environment, took place yesterday afternoon at the U.S. State Department.
Taking the first step in combating a problem is often the most challenging. For infants, that exhilarating first step unleashes a new freedom that takes them to new places (and sometimes trouble). Unfortunately, thousands of children may never take that first step or will experience increased difficulty due to stunting, as a result of unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene.
While water challenges vary across the globe, these issues are solvable. However, decision makers worldwide need to be equipped with the right tools to harness innovative technologies, expertise and resources to build sustainable solutions. Accessing useful information is the first step for designing these lasting solutions, but finding the right type of information can be a daunting task for users in developing countries.
In response, the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) announced the launch of H2infO – a new platform that offers the global community easy on-line access to a growing library of U.S.-generated water data and knowledge. The United States has information and solutions to share. However, our knowledge has been too fragmented for accessible use – until now.
Launched on October 6, H2infO harnesses U.S.-based information and connects people to the data, knowledge and resources they need to address water challenges. The portal currently hosts over 3,000 resources from leading institutions and more resources will be centrally accessible as this interactive tool continues to expand..
Step 1 – Visit H2infO
H2infO was developed by the U.S. Water Partnership, a public-private alliance formed to unite and mobilize U.S. expertise, resources and ingenuity to address water challenges where needs are the greatest. The U.S. Department of State provided additional support in the development of H2infO. The 3,000 resources currently hosted on H2infO are exclusively from U.S. Water Partnership members, a growing coalition of over 90 partners, including 19 federal agencies, academia, private companies, foundations and NGOs. Additional resources will be added to the portal regularly.
Step 2 – Explore the resources
H2infO was designed to help create catalytic solutions to diverse water challenges throughout the developing world. The portal serves as a water resource librarian – directing users to resources and linking them to relevant websites. Policymakers, service providers and service developers worldwide are able to access resources to engage in the following USWP themes: WASH, integrated water resource management, efficiency and productivity, and governance. Available H2infO resources range from training manuals and water scarcity maps to case studies and project reports.
For example, a policy maker in Angola can learn from experiences in Arizona on how to best manage water resources in times of drought; NGOs in the field can easily find training manuals to help design programs that build on decades of experiences; and lessons on trans-boundary water management in the Colorado River Basin can help build good neighbors in international river basins.
Step 3 – Build your toolset
H2infO recognizes the value of connecting multiple stakeholders to contribute resources from federal agencies, private sector, civil society and universities. Water challenges cut across multiple sectors such as health, energy, and food. A robust set of tools prepares decision makers to navigate these diverse sectors to build lasting solutions.
Climate change and population dynamics are among the factors to add stress on global demand and water supply. Decision makers around the world will increasingly search for available data and information on these topics. H2infO is the first installment of the U.S. Water Partnership’s commitment to the President’s Climate Data Initiative, which is a key deliverable of the President’s Climate Action Plan to cut carbon pollution in America, prepare communities for the impacts of climate change and lead international efforts to address this global challenge. A recent White House Council on Environmental Quality fact sheet recognized H2infO as a platform to help create a “virtual community of practice to share data, experiences, lessons and practices,” consistent with the goals of the Initiative.
The U.S. Water Partnership is excited to work with partners in the water sector to build on this platform and expand the diverse library of resources. H2infO is now live at www.H2infO.us.
WASHfunders’ Recommended Reading section has expanded with the recent addition of some new publications. Resources added in the past several months include:
Realising the human rights to water and sanitation, a handbook developed by the UN Special Rapporteur Catarina de Albuquerque to provide guidance on the implications for human rights in WASH services provision
Sanitation as a Business: Unclogging the Blockages, a report from the July 2014 conference, which includes concrete action plans around the challenges related to the scale up of sustainable sanitation
The conference report from the 2014 WASH Sustainability Forum, which provides a summary of recommendation, next steps, and participant feedback that emerged from the meeting on WASH sector sustainability
New publications are added to WASHfunders’ Knowledge Center on a rolling basis, via IssueLab, a service of the Foundation Center. And we accept suggestions! If you’d like us to add a case study, evaluation, white paper, or issue brief that is of interest to those in the social sector working in WASH, please contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org.
As political leaders and civil society advocates converge in New York this week for the U.N. General Assembly -- as well as concurrent events such as the Clinton Global Initiative Annual Meeting and the U.N. Climate Summit -- advocates in the WASH sector are receiving some high profile attention. Here are some WASH highlights so far from this year’s UNGA week:
WaterAid’s Barbara Frost at UN Climate Summit
Chief Executive of WaterAid, Barbara Frost, spoke yesterday at the U.N.’s Climate Summit 2014 about the implications of extreme weather events and climate change for water, sanitation and hygiene. A blog post discussing the content of her speech is featured here on The Huffington Post.
Water.org co-founders at the Clinton Global Initiative Annual Meeting
Water.org co-founders Gary White and Matt Damon participated in the Clinton Global Initiative meeting as part of yesterday’s plenary, Cities as Labs of Innovation (video starts at 53:15). The pair highlighted their collaboration with corporate philanthropy, including the Ikea Foundation, the MasterCard Foundation, PepsiCo Foundation, and the Caterpillar Foundation, to support their WaterCredit model, which assists poor households in secure loans to pay for water and sanitation facilities in their homes.
A post authored by Gary White and the CEO of the Ikea Foundation and published this week on the Guardian’s website also touches on the importance of innovative financing models and the participation of the public and private sectors in scaling safe water access.
WASH at the Global Citizen Action Summit 2014
Global Citizen Festival 2014 will be held this Saturday in Central Park, and while tickets for that event have already been distributed, at the time of publishing, registration is still open for this Friday’s Action Summit. The Summit’s session on sanitation starts at 11:30 am at New York University’s Skirball Center for the Performing Arts and the lineup of featured participants working in the WASH space includes:
- Sarina Prabasi, CEO, WaterAid America
- Chris Williams, Executive Director, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council
- David Auerbach, Co-Founder, Sanergy (who blogged for us earlier this year)
Feel free to add other events going on in the world of WASH during UNGA week in the comments!
Editor’s Note:This guest post is authored by Alexandra Chitty, Research Uptake Officer at SHARE Research Consortium. The Consortium comprises five organisations that have come together to generate research to inform policy and practice in the areas of sanitation and hygiene. In June, SHARE launched a toolkit on Violence, Gender and WASH, which brings together best practices as well as tools and policy responses to help make WASH safer. In her post, Alexandra shares the origins and goals of this project and describes the contents and reception of the toolkit.
The connection between poor WASH and gender-based violence has long been posited but, until recently, the realities of this relationship had received very little recognition or exploration. So, the SHARE Research Consortium, funded by DFID, decided to undertake research and learning on this issue and develop a Practitioner’s Toolkit on Violence, Gender and WASH in order to:
- Shed light on the intricacies of this link
- Raise awareness on types of violence which can occur with linkages to WASH
- Offer practical guidance to practitioners on how to improve their programming and services to minimise the risks of gender-based and other types of violence, as well as how to respond to incidents of violence should they occur
You can view the toolkit here.
WASH and violence: the links
Although the root cause of violence is the differences in power between people, for instance between men and women or between people of different social groupings, poor access to WASH services can increase vulnerabilities to violence. A lack of access to a toilet in or near the home or poor access to water supply can lead to women and children defecating in the open after dark or having to walk long distances to collect water. This in turn can increase their vulnerability to harassment and violence, including sexual violence. A lack of easy access to water can also lead to tensions in the household or fights between neighbours or other users, particularly where water is scarce.
The starting point for the research and the subsequent formulation of the toolkit was a need to better understand the scope and scale of the problem and to provide guidance for practitioners on how they can improve their programming to reduce these risks.
What’s in the toolkit?
The toolkit, co-published by 27 organisations, examines the available evidence around how a lack of access to appropriate WASH increases vulnerabilities to violence. Although much of the available evidence is anecdotal or from small scale studies, the research found case studies from more than 30 countries and a number of more in-depth qualitative and quantitative studies. A study in India, for example, found that women felt intense fear of sexual violence when accessing water and sanitation services. These findings were echoed in a similar study in Uganda where women reported that that journeying to use toilets, particularly at night, was dangerous for their security.
The toolkit provides practical guidance for policymakers, programme funding personnel, advocacy staff, implementers, trainers, monitoring and evaluation staff, and human resource staff on how the sector can help make WASH safer and more effective. For example, one of the ten key principles it advances is institutionalizing the requirement to analyse and respond to vulnerabilities to violence in WASH-related policies, strategies, plans, budgets and systems. To achieve this, organisations could, it suggests, undertake advocacy for increased attention on, and allocation of finances and resources to, reducing vulnerabilities to violence linked to WASH.
Three main takeaways emerge from the toolkit:
- Poor access to WASH services can increase vulnerabilities to violence, but the root cause of violence is the differences in power between people
- Provision of WASH facilities alone cannot prevent any form of violence from occurring as they do not address the root cause of violence; for this wider societal change is required
- WASH and associated practitioners can, however, make a very positive contribution to trying to reduce the exposure of those most vulnerable to violence
Progress so far
The toolkit was presented to DFID during World Toilet Day (2013) and was officially launched at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine on 9th June 2014. There, participants discussed how to better to engage women and adolescent girls in programming, how to engage men and boys on issues of safety, and how best to encourage busy WASH practitioners to consider these issues and integrate considerations of violence into their work.
The toolkit was commended for being highly relevant to DFID’s commitment to reducing violence against women and girls and to WaterAid’s focus on equity and inclusion as a framework for WASH service delivery. UNICEF also indicated that the toolkit was being used to adapt WASH programming and facilities in South Sudan and would be beneficial to the on-going work updating the Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s Guidelines for Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Settings.
Professionals working in over 40 different countries and working for 132 different organisations/institutions have received copies of the toolkit. It has also been distributed through the headquarters of international organisations and can be downloaded here.
Drawing on the toolkit, WaterAid will lead a one day capacity development workshop on the nexus between violence, gender, and WASH at the 37th Water, Engineering and Development Centre Conference being held in Vietnam this September. You can register for this event here.
The authors hope this toolkit will be a valuable resource to WASH and associated practitioners working across the globe to reduce WASH-related vulnerabilities to violence. For more information on the toolkit, please contact us by email: email@example.com